The 21st annual Africa Energy Forum took place in Lisbon, Portugal June 11–14, highlighting the risks, rewards, opportunities and challenges African nations and solar and renewable energy industry players face as they expand efforts to realize universal sustainable energy access and the 16 other 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Power and energy markets and industry in Africa have emerged as some of the most diverse, vital and innovative in the world over the past decade, reflecting the geographic, cultural, energy and natural resources diversity of the continent itself. Distributed solar energy technology and systems, such as mobile pay-as-you-go solar home systems and community and commercial-industrial (C&I) mini/microgrids are playing a key, pivotal role. Multilateral development banks, enterprising social and sustainable energy start-ups, non-profit and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), venture capital and corporate investors, utilities and national governments all appear keen to scale up their solar, renewable and sustainable energy and development initiatives. Solar is finally becoming recognized by governments as truly cost competitive with fossil fu...